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   2014| May-August  | Volume 27 | Issue 2  
    Online since October 31, 2014

 
 
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Metacognition in medical education
Ipekek Gonullu, Muge Artar
May-August 2014, 27(2):225-226
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.143784  PMID:25420992
  3,986 794 3
RENDEZ-VOUS 2012 CONFERENCE PAPERS: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE
The training for health equity network evaluation framework: A pilot study at five health professional schools
Simone J Ross, Robyn Preston, Iris C Lindemann, Marie C Matte, Rex Samson, Filedito D Tandinco, Sarah L Larkins, Bjorg Palsdottir, Andre-Jacques Neusy
May-August 2014, 27(2):116-126
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.143727  PMID:25420971
Background: The Training for Health Equity Network (THEnet), a group of diverse health professional schools aspiring toward social accountability, developed and pilot tested a comprehensive evaluation framework to assess progress toward socially accountable health professions education. The evaluation framework provides criteria for schools to assess their level of social accountability within their organization and planning; education, research and service delivery; and the direct and indirect impacts of the school and its graduates, on the community and health system. This paper describes the pilot implementation of testing the evaluation framework across five THEnet schools, and examines whether the evaluation framework was practical and feasible across contexts for the purposes of critical reflection and continuous improvement in terms of progress towards social accountability. Methods: In this pilot study, schools utilized the evaluation framework using a mixed method approach of data collection comprising of workshops, qualitative interviews and focus group discussions, document review and collation and analysis of existing quantitative data. Results: The evaluation framework allowed each school to contextually gather evidence on how it was meeting the aspirational goals of social accountability across a range of school activities, and to identify strengths and areas for improvement and development. Discussion: The evaluation framework pilot study demonstrated how social accountability can be assessed through a critically reflective and comprehensive process. As social accountability focuses on the relationship between health professions schools and health system and health population outcomes, each school was able to demonstrate to students, health professionals, governments, accrediting bodies, communities and other stakeholders how current and future health care needs of populations are addressed in terms of education, research, and service learning.
  3,731 748 15
RENDEZ-VOUS 2012 CONFERENCE PAPERS: GENERAL ARTICLES
Challenges in transformation of the "traditional block rotation" medical student clinical education into a longitudinal integrated clerkship model
William Heddle, Gayle Roberton, Sarah Mahoney, Lucie Walters, Sarah Strasser, Paul Worley
May-August 2014, 27(2):138-142
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.143744  PMID:25420974
Background: Longitudinal integrated clerkships (LIC) in the first major clinical year in medical student training have been demonstrated to be at least equivalent to and in some areas superior to the "traditional block rotation" (TBR). Flinders University School of Medicine is starting a pilot changing the traditional teaching at the major Academic Medical Centre from TBR to LIC (50% of students in other locations in the medical school already have a partial or full LIC programme). Methods: This paper summarises the expected challenges presented at the "Rendez-Vous" Conference in October 2012: (a) creating urgency, (b) training to be a clinician rather than imparting knowledge, (c) resistance to change. Results: We discuss the unexpected challenges that have evolved since then: (a) difficulty finalising the precise schedule, (b) underestimating time requirements, (c) managing the change process inclusively. Discussion: Transformation of a "block rotation" to "LIC" medical student education in a tertiary academic teaching hospital has many challenges, many of which can be anticipated, but some are unexpected.
  3,244 666 8
RENDEZ-VOUS 2012 CONFERENCE PAPERS: PRACTICAL ADVICE PAPERS
Accounting for social accountability: Developing critiques of social accountability within medical education
Stacey A Ritz, Kathleen Beatty, Rachel H Ellaway
May-August 2014, 27(2):152-157
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.143747  PMID:25420977
Background: The concept of the social accountability of medical schools has garnered many followers, in response to a broad desire for greater social justice in health care. As its use has spread, the term 'social accountability' has become a meta-narrative for social justice and an inevitable and unquestionable good, while at the same time becoming increasingly ambiguous in its meaning and intent. In this article, we use the lenses of postmodernism and critical reflexivity to unpack the multiple meanings of social accountability. In our view, subjecting the concept of 'social accountability' to critique will enhance the ability to appraise the ways in which it is understood and enacted. Discussion: We contend that critical reflexivity is necessary for social accountability to achieve its aspirations, and hence we must be prepared to become accountable not only for our actions, but also for the ideologies and discourses underlying them.
  3,048 671 10
RENDEZ-VOUS 2012 CONFERENCE PAPERS: GENERAL ARTICLES
Pre-departure training and the social accountability of International Medical Electives
Lauren J Wallace, Allison Webb
May-August 2014, 27(2):143-147
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.143745  PMID:25420975
Background: Due to widespread awareness of global inequities in health and development, participation and interest in International Medical Electives has grown. However, it has been suggested that the benefits of these electives for students and communities may not outweigh the harms. Pre-departure training (PDT) has been proposed as a route through which participants can adequately prepare for their elective experience. Methods: Through a review of the current literature, this article explores the ethics of international medical electives using a social accountability framework and assesses the success of PDT in mitigating harms for students and communities. Results: We find that the literature on PDT is limited. What is clear from completed studies is that the focus of PDT has often been centered on the clinical experience, while theories of development and health inequity remain minor topics. We argue that a greater benefit for students and communities could be gained from framing health inequity from a critical perspective, and integrating mandatory global health education into medical school curricula. Discussion: We suggest that attention to only PDT is not enough. In a socially accountable program, community partnerships must be bilateral and respect communities as primary stakeholders in the training of students and in program evaluation. Unfortunately, research to-date has focused on the student experience; further studies of the community perspective would help to elicit how PDT and partnership models can be strengthened, improving the experiences of both students and communities. Finally, individual medical schools and organizations that offer global health elective experiences must ensure that they take responsibility for monitoring PDT.
  3,018 617 13
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLES
A consortium approach to competency-based undergraduate medical education in Uganda: Process, opportunities and challenges
Sarah Kiguli, Roy Mubuuke, Rhona Baingana, Stephen Kijjambu, Samuel Maling, Paul Waako, Celestino Obua, Emilio Ovuga, David Kaawa-Mafigiri, Jonathan Nshaho, Elsie Kiguli-Malwadde, Robert Bollinger, Nelson Sewankambo
May-August 2014, 27(2):163-169
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.143774  PMID:25420979
Background: Uganda, like the rest of Africa, is faced with serious health challenges including human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), other infectious diseases and increasing non-communicable diseases, yet it has a significant shortage of health workers. Even the few health workers available may lack desired competencies required to address current and future health challenges. Reducing Uganda's disease burden and addressing health challenges requires Ugandan medical schools to produce health workers with the necessary competencies. This study describes the process which a consortium of Ugandan medical schools and the Medical Education Partnership for Equitable Services to all Ugandans (MESAU) undertook to define the required competencies of graduating doctors in Uganda and implement competency-based medical education (CBME). Methods: A retrospective qualitative study was conducted in which document analysis was used to collect data employing pre-defined checklists, in a desktop or secondary review of various documents. These included reports of MESAU meetings and workshops, reports from individual institutions as well as medical undergraduate curricula of the different institutions. Thematic analysis was used to extract patterns from the collected data. Results: MESAU initiated the process of developing competencies for medical graduates in 2011 using a participatory approach of all stakeholders. The process involved consultative deliberations to identify priority health needs of Uganda and develop competencies to address these needs. Nine competence domain areas were collaboratively identified and agreed upon, and competencies developed in these domains. Discussion: Key successes from the process include institutional collaboration, faculty development in CBME and initiating the implementation of CBME. The consortium approach strengthened institutional collaboration that led to the development of common competencies desired of all medical graduates to address priority health challenges in Uganda. It is important that the MESAU consortium continues engaging all stakeholders in medical education to support the implementation and sustainability of CBME in Uganda.
  3,123 499 4
RENDEZ-VOUS 2012 CONFERENCE PAPERS: EDITORIAL
Special issue on Rendez-Vous 2012 conference, Thunder Bay, Canada, October 9-14, 2012: Community participation in health professional education, research and service
Roger Strasser, Sue Berry
May-August 2014, 27(2):111-115
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.143726  PMID:25420970
  2,218 1,199 1
RENDEZ-VOUS 2012 CONFERENCE PAPERS: GENERAL ARTICLES
The beyond borders initiative: Aboriginal, torres strait islander and international public health students: Engaging partners in cross-cultural learning
Michelle Dickson, Giselle Manalo
May-August 2014, 27(2):132-137
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.143729  PMID:25420973
Background: The University of Sydney's Graduate Diploma in Indigenous Health Promotion (GDIHP) and Masters of International Public Health (MIPH) students have expressed a consistent desire to engage more with each other through student tutorials or any small group activity. MIPH students have expressed an interest in learning about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanderpeople and their health issues recognising contextual similarities in health priorities and social-cultural determinants. A and TSI students enrolled in the GDIHP have traditionally had very little contact with other students and are often unaware of the innovative solutions implemented in developing countries. Methods: Through this inclusive teaching innovation the MIPH and GDIHP programmes utilised diversity in the student population and responded to the University's Strategic Plan to promote and enhance pathways for supporting Indigenous students. This innovation provided an opportunity for both groups to learn more about each other as they develop into globally competitive public health practitioners. Results: The 'Beyond Borders' initiative exposed MIPH and GDIHP students to problem-based learning that incorporated global perspectives as well as focusing on the very specific and unique realities of life in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. Both student cohorts reported that the knowledge and skill exchange was highly valuable and contributed to their development as health professionals. Discussion: This simple yet effective initiative created a sustainable cross-cultural, interdisciplinary and community-oriented partnership that benefited all involved and assisted in addressing health inequities in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and in developing countries.
  2,878 450 -
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLES
Students' concerns about the pre-internship objective structured clinical examination in medical education
Ali Labaf, Hasan Eftekhar, Fereshteh Majlesi, Pasha Anvari, Farshad Sheybaee-Moghaddam, Delnavaz Jan, Arsia Jamali
May-August 2014, 27(2):188-192
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.143787  PMID:25420983
Background: Despite several studies on implementation, reliability and validity of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), the perceptions of examinees toward this evaluation tool remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to assess students' perceptions of the OSCE. Methods: All students in their final year of studies, who participated in the pre-internship OSCE in September 2010, were included in the study. A 16-item questionnaire was designed to assess: Characteristics of respondents; organization, content and structure of the OSCE; and perceptions of validity, reliability and rating of the OSCE with respect to other assessment methods. Questionnaires were administered immediately after all students had finished the OSCE and before leaving the examination venue. Results: Response rate was 86.2%, with 77% of the students indicating the OSCE as a useful learning experience. A majority of the students (62%) agreed that a wide range of clinical skills was covered in this exam. However, 66% had concerns about the wide coverage of knowledge assessed. A total of 81% of students did not prefer the OSCE to multiple choice question exams and 88% found the OSCE intimidating and more stressful than other forms of assessment. Discussion: Our study demonstrates that although the majority of students believe in the reliability and validity of the OSCE, they have concerns about it and report poor acceptance of the OSCE. Further studies are necessary to assess the important concerns of the students and the effectiveness of interventions in improving the acceptability of the OSCE.
  2,786 511 1
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Attitudes towards professionalism in graduate and non-graduate entrants to medical school
Siún O'Flynn, Stephen Power, Mary Horgan, Colm M. P. O'Tuathaigh
May-August 2014, 27(2):200-204
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.143770  PMID:25420985
Background: The number of places available in Ireland and the United Kingdom (UK) for graduate entry to medical school has increased in the past decade. Research has primarily focused on academic and career outcomes in this cohort, but attitudes towards professionalism in medicine have not been systematically assessed. The purpose of this study was to compare the importance of items related to professional behaviour among graduate entrants and their 'school-leaver' counterparts. Methods: This was a quantitative cross-sectional study, conducted in University College Cork (UCC), Ireland. A validated questionnaire was distributed to undergraduate-entry (UG) and graduate-entry (GE) students with items addressing the following areas: Demographic and academic characteristics and attitudes towards several classes of professional behaviours in medicine. Results: GE students ascribed greater importance, relative to UG students, to various aspects of professionalism across the personal characteristics, interaction with patients and social responsibility categories. Additionally, in UG students, a significant decrease in perceived importance of the following professionalism items was evident across the course of the degree programme: Respect for patients as individuals, treating the underprivileged and reporting dishonesty of others. Among both groups of students, individual mentoring was rated the most important method for teaching professionalism in medicine. Discussion: This study is the first comparison of attitudes to professionalism in UG and GE students. This study highlighted important group differences between GE and UG students in attitudes towards professional behaviours, together with different perspectives regarding how professionalism might be incorporated within the curriculum.
  2,827 317 10
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLES
Medical students' and postgraduate residents' observations of professionalism
Rae Spiwak, Melanie Mullins, Corinne Isaak, Samia Barakat, Dan Chateau, Jitender Sareen Sareen
May-August 2014, 27(2):193-199
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.143790  PMID:25420984
Background: There is increasing interest in teaching professionalism to medical learners. The purpose of this study was to explore professionalism observed among medical learners and faculty in a Canadian academic institution. Methods: A total of 253 medical learners (30% response rate) completed an online survey measuring medical professionalism. The survey used a validated professionalism scale "Climate of Professionalism", which queries subjects' observations of professional and unprofessional behavior in clinical teaching environments. Results: Overall, 73.3% of medical learners felt prepared in the area of medical professionalism. Differences existed in observed professionalism by level of training. By respondents' reports, both medical students and residents viewed their peer groups as more professional than the other. Both groups also rated faculty as the poorest in terms of observed professional behaviors but the best in observed unprofessional behavior. Discussion: Most learners in this Canadian medical school felt well prepared in the area of professionalism, and each training level viewed their peer group as the most professional. Peer groups may rate themselves more favorably due to increased interaction with their group, and active recall of professional communications. This study found differences in observations of professionalism by training level, therefore provides support for specialized professionalism education tailored to the learners level of medical training.
  2,335 559 3
Physician as teacher: Promoting health and wellness among elementary school students
Jill E Stefaniak, Victoria C Lucia
May-August 2014, 27(2):183-187
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.143785  PMID:25420982
Background: Every day, physicians engage in teaching during their patient encounters. It may be that medical students who are introduced to the principles of teaching and learning are more likely to become good communicators and learners. Service-learning may be an effective way for medical students to practice skills in teaching and communication in a real-world setting, while also filling a need within the community. The purpose of this study was to identify common themes within medical students' reflections on what they learned through participating in a teaching exercise with local elementary school children. Methods: As a required component of a longitudinal prevention and public health course that spans the first and second years of undergraduate medical education, second year students at the Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, in Detroit, Michigan, in the USA completed a service-learning activity, which included teaching a standardized curricular module to local elementary school children. Students were required to complete a reflection assignment based on their teaching experience. Medical students' responses to assignment's three guided questions were qualitatively coded to identify common themes among the responses related to the teaching activity. Results: Qualitative analysis of students' reflections revealed several themes regarding what the students learned and viewed as the benefits of the activity: The importance of early education and parental involvement; the importance of understanding your audience when teaching; the importance of simplifying complex concepts to the audience's level; and the importance of preparation for teaching. Medical students identified the difficulties of communicating at an audience appropriate level and providing patient education outside the confines of a controlled classroom setting. Discussion: This activity provided medical students with hands-on experience presenting to an audience age-appropriate, health-related topics. Presenting in an elementary school environment helped students better understand what health information various age groups knew about and the importance of clarifying information when communicating with a younger audience.
  2,348 463 2
Impact of a rural interprofessional health professions summer preceptorship educational experience on participants' attitudes and knowledge
Martin MacDowell, Michael Glasser, Vicki Weidenbacher-Hoper, Karen Peters
May-August 2014, 27(2):177-182
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.143783  PMID:25420981
Background: A six-week rural interprofessional health professions summer preceptorship provided an interprofessional training experience (IPE) for upper level baccalaureate and post-baccalaureate/graduate level health professions students in Dixon, Illinois, USA. There are three distinct yet complementary components of this forty hours per week summer preceptorship: Numerous interprofessional clinical shadowing experiences, a community service-learning project carried out as a team and weekly classroom sessions. This study assesses knowledge and attitude changes about IPE among students who participated in this Rural Interprofessional Health Professions Summer Preceptorship between 2006 and 2011. Methods: Fifty-two students over the six program years were asked to complete an identical pre-/post-questionnaire. The questionnaire included scales on seven topics, two of which addressed knowledge and attitudes about IPE: (i) Understanding of their own and other professions' work roles and (ii) Perceived ability to work effectively in interprofessional teams and make use of skills of other professions. Fifty of the fifty two (96.1%) students completed both the pre- and post-tests. Results: Positive changes from the pre- to the post-tests were observed for the scales that related to interaction with other professions and assessment of their professional skills and students' understanding of the roles of other professions. Pre- versus post-preceptorship students also reported greater experience working as a member of an interprofessional team and an increase in their support for interprofessional education within a rural setting being required for all health professions students. Conclusion: A rural interprofessional health professions summer preceptorship that includes preceptor shadowing, a community service-learning project and classroom work proved to be an effective approach to developing interprofessional health care teams, increasing the knowledge and skills of participating students and creating positive attitudes toward interactions with other professions.
  2,312 380 5
RENDEZ-VOUS 2012 CONFERENCE PAPERS: GENERAL ARTICLES
Peer review for social accountability of health sciences education: A model from South Africa
Desireé Christine Michaels, Stephen John Reid, Claudia Susan Naidu
May-August 2014, 27(2):127-131
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.143728  PMID:25420972
Background: The Collaboration for Health Equity in Education and Research (CHEER) is unique in the composition of its members who represent all the Faculties of Health Sciences in South Africa. Over the past 10 years, CHEER has conducted 18 peer reviews involving all the institutions. In August 2012, CHEER embarked on its pilot peer review on Social Accountability in Health Sciences in South Africa. This paper shares the lessons learned and insights from the pilot process. Methods: A descriptive study design, using qualitative methods, which focused primarily on semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions, supplemented with supporting documentation, was employed. The protocol was developed by CHEER members and ethics approval was obtained. Results: Arising from our pilot peer review, reviewers identified several key components of the review process that should be noted for future reviews on social accountability. These relate to: (a) The composition of the review team; (b) the review process; (c) data collection and analysis; and (d) the reporting process. Discussion: Peer review is a useful way of building consensus and a common set of values that become more explicit through the process. We found that six criteria, namely, values, reference population, partnerships, student profile, graduate outcomes and impact, provide the basis for establishing standards for reflecting social accountability. The peer review is a process of institutional self-review supported by 'a panel of critical friends' and is useful when considered as part of the process of preparation for the formal accreditation review at Health Sciences educational institutions.
  2,158 492 1
PRACTICAL ADVICE PAPER
The fruits of authorship
Deepak Juyal, Vijay Thawani, Shweta Thaledi, Amber Prakash
May-August 2014, 27(2):217-220
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.143777  PMID:25420989
Scientific paper authorship is an important academic achievement for all research professionals. Being designated as an author of a paper has academic, research, social and financial implications. Signing of a manuscript as an author does confer credit but also transfers responsibility. While authors get credit for the published work, they must accept the public responsibility that goes with it. Over the past few years, there has been a rising trend in authorship abuses. The prevalent culture of "publish or perish" appears to be responsible for this. In an endeavor to ensure honest practice, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), the Vancouver Group, developed the criteria for authorship and said that "all persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship and all those who qualify should be listed." However, authorship irregularities continue to exist and are a cause of concern. Budding authors should be enlightened about concurrent problems in authorship, during their formative years and encouraged toward fair practices in publications.
  2,181 426 9
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Improving awareness of patient safety in a peer-led pilot educational programme for undergraduate medical students
Adrian J Hayes, Poppy Roberts, Adam Figgins, Rosalind Pool, Siobhan Reilly, Christopher Roughley, Thomas Salter, Jessica Scott, Sarah Watson, Rebecca Woodside, Vinod Patel
May-August 2014, 27(2):213-216
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.143775  PMID:25420988
Background: Patient safety is becoming an important but under-emphasised topic in medical education. Despite high-profile recommendations, it has not yet been ingrained in the medical undergraduate curriculum. We designed and evaluated an educational intervention on patient safety to pre-clinical undergraduate medical students, devised and run entirely by medical students in their clinical years. The aim was to raise awareness of patient safety, and provide the opportunity to practice specific skills useful as medical students and junior doctors. Methods: We designed a two hour seminar consisting of a brief lecture on the principles of patient safety, followed by a carousel of interactive activities in small groups. Attendance was voluntary. The effects were evaluated by questionnaires addressing satisfaction, attitudes and self-efficacy completed before, after and six months following the seminar. Results: A total of 86 students attended, with a reserve list of interested students in place. A total of 92% completed the pre- and post-evaluation, of whom 100% enjoyed the seminar, 99% recommended other students to take part and 92% thought it should be a mandatory part of the curriculum. A total of 64% completed follow-up questionnaires at six months and showed significant maintenance of skills taught. Discussion: Student tutors can deliver effective and engaging teaching on patient safety and should be utilised as part of the existing medical curriculum. Patient safety should be taught at medical schools using interactive methodologies to promote interest.
  2,152 383 2
Course on care of patients with chronic illness: Patient-centered medical home model
Christopher Danford, Barbara Sheline, Viviana Martinez-Bianchi, Melinda Blazar, Patricia Dieter, Nancy Weigle
May-August 2014, 27(2):205-207
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.143771  PMID:25420986
Background: In the United States, the Patient-centered Medical Home (PCMH) is an emerging concept in primary care that is guiding clinical reorganization to meet the needs of patients with chronic illness. We developed a one-semester curriculum to teach the principles and practice of PCMH to medical and physician assistant students during their clinical clerkship year. Methods: The mini-course on PCMH consists of three 3-h weekend sessions over 16 weeks and a student project to develop constructive planning ideas for an assigned clinical site. In the first two sessions, students receive didactics and engage in project development discussions. Subsequently, participants work with a faculty advisor and clinic site administrative staff to identify and analyze an area of interest for the student and clinic site. In the last session, students present their projects to the larger group. During the first year of implementation, student evaluations were collected after the first and last sessions. Results: At the end of the course, students reported confidence in their understanding of PCMH concepts and practical implementations of it. Completing a student project at their clinical sites posed challenges that were logistical, rather than conceptual, and was difficult to integrate with classroom learning. Discussion: We present an interprofessional PCMH curriculum for medical and physician assistant students during their clinical year. This course provides students a familiarity with principles of the medical home model and practical experience with practice redesign issues in the context of PCMH transformation.
  2,103 372 1
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
A need to climb high to integration ladder
Nazish Fatima, Syed Muhammad Faizan Ul Haque
May-August 2014, 27(2):221-222
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.143779  PMID:25420990
  2,136 270 -
RENDEZ-VOUS 2012 CONFERENCE PAPERS: BRIEF COMMUNICATION
How social accountability can be incorporated into an urban community-based medical education program: An Australian initiative
Sarah Mahoney, Linnea Boileau, John Floridis, Christina Abi-Abdallah, Bernard Lee
May-August 2014, 27(2):148-151
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.143746  PMID:25420976
Background: Medical schools play a role in ensuring that their outcomes ultimately have positive effects on the health status of communities. We describe an initiative that translates this broad intent into meaningful activities that foster positive attitudes to social accountability among medical students in the context of an already full curriculum. Methods: Faculty members from an urban community-based medical education program undertook broad consultation with its community groups. Medical students then undertook activities designed to assist in the well-being of socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents through near-peer counselling and health education. Results: Early evaluation from medical students, secondary students, community organisations and faculty indicates that the activities undertaken to-date have been of value to stakeholders. Discussion: This initiative is intended to develop one model for incorporating social accountability into the medical curriculum with sustainable activities that benefit the community and medical students. Further research and evaluation of the impact of this initiative on both the community group involved and on medical students is essential.
  1,921 424 2
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLES
Kenyan medical student and consultant experiences in a pilot decentralized training program at the University of Nairobi
Minnie W Kibore, Joseph A Daniels, Mara J Child, Ruth Nduati, Francis J Njiri, Raphael M Kinuthia, Gabrielle O'Malley, Grace John-Stewart, James Kiarie, Carey Farquhar
May-August 2014, 27(2):170-176
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.143778  PMID:25420980
Background: Over the past decade, the University of Nairobi (UoN) has increased the number of enrolled medical students threefold in response to the growing need for more doctors. This has resulted in a congested clinical training environment and limited opportunities for students to practice clinical skills at the tertiary teaching facility. To enhance the clinical experience, the UoN Medical Education Partnership Initiative Program Undertook training of medical students in non-tertiary hospitals around the country under the mentorship of consultant preceptors at these hospitals. This study focused on the evaluation of the pilot decentralized training rotation. Methods: The decentralized training program was piloted in October 2011 with 29 fourth-year medical students at four public hospitals for a 7-week rotation. We evaluated student and consultant experiences using a series of focus group discussions. A three-person team developed the codes for the focus groups and then individually and anonymously coded the transcripts. The team's findings were triangulated to confirm major themes. Results: Before the rotation, the students expressed the motivation to gain more clinical experience as they felt they lacked adequate opportunity to exercise clinical skills at the tertiary referral hospital. By the end of the rotation, the students felt they had been actively involved in patient care, had gained clinical skills and had learned to navigate socio-cultural challenges in patient care. They further expressed their wish to return to those hospitals for future practice. The consultants expressed their motivation to teach and mentor students and acknowledged that the academic interaction had positively impacted on patient care. Discussion: The decentralized training enhanced students' learning by providing opportunities for clinical and community experiences and has demonstrated how practicing medical consultants can be engaged as preceptors in students learning. This training may also increase students' ability and willingness to work in rural and underserved areas.
  2,077 260 8
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Student-reported satisfaction with academic enhancement services at an academic health science center
Natalie White Gaughf, Penni Smith Foster, Dara A Williams
May-August 2014, 27(2):208-212
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.143773  PMID:25420987
Background: Although support services are needed to address students' concerns associated with academic demands, there is little research exploring these interventions within health sciences education. The current study examined students' perceptions of academic enhancement services at an academic health science center. Methods: Academic enhancement services provided to students included assessment of learning approaches and problems interfering with academic performance. Specific services may have addressed the transition to professional school, study skills assessment and training, time management and organization, testing strategies, clarifying career goals and interests, increasing self-confidence and coping with self-doubt, coping with depression and/or anxiety, stress management, relationship issues, and/or loss and bereavement. All students receiving academic enhancement services received a survey for programmatic improvement at the end of each semester. The online survey was voluntary and anonymous and solicited feedback about the students' experiences. Results: Sixty-three percent of respondents (N = 104; 62% female, 38% male; 62% White, 27% Black/African American, 10% Asian; 2% Hispanic) reported receiving a one-session intervention, while 34% received 2-6 sessions. Eighty-three percent of respondents reported that academic enhancement services improved their situation and 89% reported overall satisfaction. The individual services rated as most helpful addressed time management, study skills training, increasing self-confidence, and testing strategies. Discussion: It is recommended that health science centers (i) consider providing brief-term academic enhancement services to students addressing time management/organization, study skills, self-confidence, and testing strategies and (ii) engage in empirical investigations of these academic interventions.
  1,873 346 2
EDITORIAL
Co-editors' notes 27:2
Donald Pathman, Michael Glasser
May-August 2014, 27(2):108-110
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.143725  PMID:25420969
  1,611 347 -
RENDEZ-VOUS 2012 CONFERENCE PAPERS: PRACTICAL ADVICE PAPERS
Sherbrooke - Montevideo: A socially responsible international collaboration to foster family medicine
Martine Morin, Paul Grand'Maison, Eduardo Henderson, Julio Vignolo
May-August 2014, 27(2):158-162
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.143748  PMID:25420978
Background : The World Health Organization advocates for faculties of medicine to orient health professional education toward the needs of the populations graduates are to serve and to include a greater emphasis on primary health care. It was in this framework that in 2007, the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences at the Université de Sherbrooke (FMHS-UdeS) in Canada and the Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de la Republica (FMUdelaR) in Montevideo, Uruguay developed a comprehensive collaboration to sustain the development of family medicine in both universities through education, practice and research. Activities and Outcomes : In addition to information sharing through email and teleconferencing, this five year collaboration has included 28 bilateral visits by the two institutions' teachers and leaders. During these visits, Uruguayan members participated in workshops and benefited from exchanges during educational and clinical activities. Interactions led to the improvement of their skills as teachers of family medicine with an emphasis on clinical teaching, supervision, feedback to learners in clinical evaluations, use of various educational methods, use of standardized patients for teaching and evaluation, and research. FMHS-UdeS members learned about the community aspects of family medicine in Uruguay and reflected on how these could be implemented to the benefit of Canadians. Conclusions : The international collaboration forged between the FMHS-UdeS and the FMUdelaR represents a socially responsible endeavor that has been highly rewarding for all involved. It represents a significant learning opportunity for each group aiming to better prepare physicians to serve as primary health care providers in their communities.
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Framework for distance training of laboratory professionals in Sub-Saharan Africa
Francesco Marinucci
May-August 2014, 27(2):223-224
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.143781  PMID:25420991
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